Broadly understood to be the act of communicating and art of persuading, rhetoric is the foundation of all communities. Since North Carolina Central University was founded in 1910, its students, faculty, and staff have employed rhetoric for many purposes, including intellectual debate, political protest, and personal expression. Composed by the members of the 2018 History of Rhetoric course at NCCU, this project showcases historical and contemporary rhetorical artifacts that reflect the values, commitments, and aspirations of our community.
Rhetoric has always been studied historically, but we assert that history is also rhetorical, meaning that it tells the stories of those in power from their perspectives. In this project, we write our own rhetorical histories up to the present. To write our history means honoring African American rhetorics, which for too long have been left out of America’s story. As a Historically Black University, NCCU has produced and hosted many significant African American rhetoricians, including several NC politicians, Zora Neale Hurston, Andre Leon Talley, and the Obamas. African American rhetorics reflect the rhetorical styles of their African ancestors and seek to uplift the community.
We showcase artifacts that fall beyond traditional boundaries of rhetoric (speech and writing) to highlight the innovative ways our community members have argued for their rights, expressed their values, and effected change. This project is divided into nine sections. Each section focuses on a different rhetorical medium—describing its unique significance to NCCU and showing examples of prominent and everyday NCCU rhetorics.
Speak Within the Facts
The most classic and notable form of rhetoric is spoken word and speech. Speakers at NCCU have spoken on many topics that have displayed some of the most important values that the school upholds, including the diversity that the school encourages and the empowering and nurturing environment the faculty provides for the students.
One of the most important speakers of NCCU was the founder Dr. James E. Shepard. Here is an address he delivered that was broadcast statewide over the radio, titled “Our Mutual Tasks.”
This speech was presented in February of 1946, one year after the end of WWII and one year before his death. In this address, Dr. Shepard talks about the condition of the people who reside in North Carolina, covering topics such as the economy, education, and even the state of mind of the youth. He became a voice for North Carolina, encouraging people to use the resources available in order to bring forth the best for the state. Dr. Shepard called these resources “Our Mutual Tasks” or “Supply Lines.” These topics reflect some of the problems that North Carolinians still face today.
Best known for her role as Claire Huxtable in The Cosby Show, Phylicia Rashad spoke at one of the NCCU’s “Rock the Mic” events in November of 2017.
During her presentation, she spoke on the impact and legacy that HBCUs have on their students. As a graduate of Howard University, she shed light on how Black institutions create an environment that enables all students to obtain the best training and education that they can possibly receive. Rashad also spoke about the ability of what could be gained from attending an HBCU. However, she believed that it was up to each student to take advantage of these opportunities. In her presentation, she also discussed the importance of women in the Black community. She expressed how women make up a culture and should respect themselves.
In another address over the radio, titled “Education in a Democracy,” Dr. Shepard discussed the desperate need for education among African Americans in North Carolina.
Considerably low incomes of Black teachers and workers were a significant problem. Dr. Shepard describes how better education would improve democracy in the North Carolina and the United States because African Americans were a large percent of the population. An important point included in his argument for education of Black people was actually a questionnaire that Booker T. Washington set up for prominent southern White men to prove that Blacks would be better off not educated. Some of these questions included, “Is it the ignorant Negro or the educated Negro who commits crime?” and “Had education made the Negro a more useful citizen?” In this survey, most of the answers supported educating Blacks. Dr. Shepard uses these results to drive the argument for better education in North Carolinian Blacks. His steadfastness and zeal to create better education for African Americans is something that is still present in the institution that he founded.
Rhetorics of activism represent the ethical responsibility of participants toward a greater cause than themselves. The responsibility of rhetoric, as a tool, should be used to aid a collective body of people. The power of student protest has a long history of success and still proves to be a successful tool of change, as we can see with recent student protests against gun violence. At HBCUs, activism is bred into our culture, which we can see in recent student protests that led to change.
In 2017, HBCU students at Bethune-Cookman University (Daytona Beach, FL) voiced their displeasure with the selection of Secretary of Education, Betsy DeVos, as their commencement speaker. When the university declined to replace her as their speaker, several hundred stood and walked out during her address. This protest encouraged universities and speakers to reconsider speaking engagements. U.S. Senator John Cornyn canceled his commencement address at Texas Southern University after several students complained of his support for voter identification laws and his vote for the confirmation of current Attorney General Jeff Sessions.
In addition, hundreds of HBCU students in Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Louisiana marched during the summer of 2017 in protest of local Confederate monuments. It was reported that one of our own participated in bringing down the monument in downtown Durham. While destroying public property is not being advocated here, we at NCCU do advocate protesting for change.
NCCU students and community advocates rallied in a peaceful protest on campus at the Greek Bowl on September 21, 2016 to discuss their thoughts on the shooting death of Keith Scott in Charlotte and what to do to combat police brutality. The protest was one of many taking place at HBCUs across the state. Activist at NCCU carry on the values established by our founder, Dr. Shepard.
In the 1960s, sit-ins were significant events in American and African American History because they brought national attention to segregation in the South.
On Feb. 8 1960, approximately twenty male and female students from NCCU (then North Carolina College) organized a sit-in at Woolworth’s, S.H. Kress, and Walgreens lunch counters in downtown Durham. This sit-in received the attention of the press, NAACP, and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. NCC students were moved to stage their own sit-in after taking a page from students at North Carolina Agriculture & Technology, who conducted a sit-in a week prior. A portion of the lunch counter is featured in the Shepard Library, displaying our proud history as a university and a people. Protesting for equality continues to be a vehicle for change used by NCCU students.
Student activists have long used protest as a way of combating injustice, from the sit-in to marching for a cause. Here, student and Echo Staff Photographer, Bryson Pope, captured photos images at the Jena 6 Rally in 2007. Forty-four NCCU students traveled to Jena, Louisiana, in support of six young Black men wrongly jailed for a school yard fight. Meanwhile, their White counterparts were not charged and basically went free. Student activist photography afforded NCCU another way of bringing attention to a local issue with global ramifications.
This footage shows a rally hosted by the NCCU Black Law Students Association in support of justice for Michael Brown on August 25, 2014, in front of the School of Law. Student activists continue to live out our mission and values, amidst the outbreaks of police brutality around America. These students and alumni use their voices and their understanding of the legal system to make changes.
Through class projects, students also express campus concerns. This video shows students speaking out against current parking issues at NCCU. Students address the limited number of parking spaces and the need for changes. Class assignments like writing letters to the editor, launching social media campaigns, or creating socially motivated art installations all contribute to the activist spirit on campus.
Whether it is big government, local government, or school administration, NCCU Eagles are determined to rise to the occasion and continue the legacy of Unapologetically Protesting for their cause!
NCCU Does it Best... Chicken Breast, That is
Rhetorics of Food
Macaroni cheese. Collard Greens. Yams. Cornbread. Mashed potatoes with gravy. String beans. Coleslaw. Black eyed peas. And Fried chicken! “Soul food” is what they call this smorgasbord. Because of the comfort these foods bring to one’s soul when eating it, soul food has catered to a traditional past time within several African American households. Beginning during slavery, slaves created these traditional soulful dishes using only the scraps of food that were leftover from the master’s family. As time progressed, these dishes evolved in both taste and creation and added a bit more soul from century to century.
Soul food has a way of bringing others together, thus creating a communal gathering for meals. Various HBCUs across the nation incorporate soul food within their own dining services. NCCU aims to continue the tradition of soul food at their institution. In the 1944 yearbook, a poem titled “Wouldn’t It Be Nice If-----” describes early dining at NCCU. The poem explains it would be nice if:
The students would enter the dining hall on time
There were no meatless Sunday-Monday-Tuesday-Wednesday-Thursday-Friday and Saturdays
A "Snack Bar" were on the campus under the dining hall
All of these suggestions mention how it would be convenient if these needs were met in students’ daily dining experiences. It’s apparent that students during this time were displeased with the lack of variety of food within their dining experiences.
Food for thought is more than just a catchy phrase. Simply consuming food can make memories, entertain, and develop into a pastime. NCCU has come a long way since 1944! Over the past 50 years, the quality, variety, and symbolism of food has evolved. Cooks and chefs across campus have revived a rich historical connection to food. It has bonded together the unity within African Americans and has allowed NCCU to embrace past traditions and incorporate them into present day. New traditions have emerged that many people look forward to.
Some traditions that have developed at NCCU include Seafood night, Chicken Wednesday, Fish Friday, DJ at Midnight, and other themed dining experiences. The most notable of these traditions is Chicken Wednesday. Chicken Wednesday presents a great example of how NCCU has managed to implement history into the dining experience. During Chicken Wednesday, soul food is served at every station in the dining hall. On Wednesdays, the lines are the longest, the seats and tables are filled, and even tourists become attracted to this unique dining experience. Chicken Wednesday is a way for NCCU to reintroduce soul food to the students, filling them with a familiar comfort within the African American community. Fish Friday, Seafood night, and DJ at Midnight, similar to Chicken Wednesday, all create environments that help students bond and unify with one another.
NCCU is also notable for its outside food services. Several times throughout the semester, food vendors and food trucks provide services to students and visitors. Although these services are outside of NCCU’s traditional dining services, these vendors also attract a crowd of eager guests and visitors. These vendors allow students and visitors to mingle and relish in the company of one another. Once again, food has used its power to support African American communities, cater to a common pastime, and to contribute to a growing history.
NCCU and other HBCUs are noteworthy for their food and its influence. HBCUs will continue to use food as a way to cater to the needs of their students and to carry out traditions.
Art is an important part of NCCU. It’s hard not to walk into artistic people, especially in the halls of the Fine Arts Building, where you will find student made murals and sculptures.
Through campus art, students and faculty illustrate African-American rhetoric’s focus on reaffirmation, an affirmation of worth and dignity. NCCU art brings to mind the African flavor of the past and shows a concern for today. Whether depicting an ordinary girl or a cosmic space goddess, NCCU students create art that features Black representation. By doing this, they are reclaiming themselves.
In an interview with Campus Echo, visiting instructor Michele Patterson explains the accessibility of the Art Department: “Our department is a place where you can come in having not much background in art. You don’t have to already have gone to some high, fancy high school.” The video is a simple, yet sentimental “thank you” from the students to the professors. Though the program is small (having around 100 students), it is a close-knit community of teachers and students. Professors hold no ideas of grandeur. Though they know that any career in the arts is a struggle, they encourage students to pursue their passion.
Prayer in Color was painted by art faculty professor Achamyeleh Debela. In a Campus Echo interview, he talks about how the process of creating is both a physical and mental exercise and how his ideas and creation manifest. He begins to paint and as he does, his art begins to take shape. This painting is clear and polished; it does not look as if it is improvised. Looking at this image gives one a sense of nostalgia. Even without looking at the title, the audience knows this is a little girl about to go to church. Getting ready for Easter Sunday is a ritual for many. Children and adults lay out fancy dress. Elders don hats, while children wear stockings and frilly socks. When women see this image, many are transported to childhood. It’s a cultural experience they can relate to. The use of warm colors and blends helps maintain a sweet transition into days of religious springs. It is this way, artists express their Black experience.
Another avenue for creators is Ex Umbra, the school’s student literary magazine. The magazine was started to gain exposure for writers and artists on campus. The magazine features fiction, non-fiction, and poetry. But accompanying the prose is art and photography as well. Included here are some scans from the 1966 edition of the magazine, in which the art editor is credited as Winston Kennedy. Even then, student art was added. One interesting piece by Robert Strong appears to be a smudge granite drawing of a man, another a vase against angular shapes. Here students channel an African aesthetic.
The Souls of Black Folk is an art installation in the alcove of the music and art building, set up in the early fall of 2015.
In the lobby of the music building, the art museum can be found. With a black backdrop with names, transparent mannequins float from the sky. This work is named after a collection of essays by W.E.B. Du Bois. The multi-media work is meant to memorialize African Americans who have been murdered through the act of police brutality. Students have an awareness and a care for what is happening in the African-American community.
Though the art program is small, it has a huge effect on its students, whether it’s a career or a single lesson. The world influences them to make art, and in return, their art will influence the world.
Music is often considered an emotional and political outlet for people. We often use music to help regulate our emotions or to express ourselves in some capacity. On the NCCU campus, many artists use music rhetorically to set a certain tone and persuade their audience.
One common rhetorical use of music in America is the playing of the National Anthem at various events. The anthem is used not only to honor the country but also to incite a more patriotic feeling in the audience. Student DJs—like DJ Lowkey, DJ Double A, and DJ Drizzy—use this same strategy on NCCU’s campus and set the tone for events. These masters of turntables are guided by their knowledge of the crowd and use this to control the mood of events. With the influence of the DJ, a certain song can turn a dead crowd into one of the most beautiful and liveliest groups of people. When students hear the bass guitar begin in Cameo’s “Candy,” the entire audience automatically stands up and assumes position to do the electric slide.
A lot of popular music today derived from early Negro spirituals. Because slaves were monitored by their overseers, they often communicated using spirituals and hymns. Slaves were not allowed to speak openly to each other while working in the fields, so instead, they sang spirituals that contained double meanings. A lot of these hymns had underlying messages that only the slaves could understand. For example, “Wade in the Water” told runaway slaves to wash themselves in the river in order to mask their scent from hunting dogs. While some hymns expressed the oppression and pain felt by the slaves, others expressed victory and triumph over their struggles, like the song, “Victory Is Mine.” Spirituals were a rhetorical strategy used by slaves that developed into what became known as blues, rock and roll, and even today’s rap/hip hop.
Musical artists on campus express themselves through their music. $wank, a NCCU alum, is one of the many NCCU artists who has used music as a way to express himself to his listeners.
Artists make themselves vulnerable to fans by telling personal stories and experiences that bring awareness to their struggle and culture. In between his punchlines, $wank gives listeners a glimpse of his life, wherein he reveals his plans of becoming successful through hard work and dedication. He often speaks on the struggles Black men face within his community and expresses how he is going to overcome them all.
Musical artists do not only have to express themselves through their words but also instruments. The NCCU music program is a haven for musical artists to improve their abilities. In this program, artists learn how to move and persuade listeners with their instruments and voices.
Beginning in 1911, NCCU’s program has brought various students together and has expanded their love of music. The program offers classes for students who are musically talented and teaches musical techniques to connect more effectively with their listeners. Students learn that tempo, melody, rhythm, and pitch all play a factor in how the audience’s emotion will be affected. Musical communication is universal and can be understood by many different cultures.
Annie Day Shepard, the wife of Dr. Shepard, contributed to the musical legacy of NCCU by writing the alma mater. Still regularly sung at university events, the alma mater shows the love and dedication she had for NCCU.
Throughout this ode, you can see and hear the love in the lyrics and melody. Just like the National Anthem, NCCU’s alma mater is sung at events to produce the overwhelming feeling of joy and pride for the school.
NCCU Flash Mob
Rhetorics of Dance
“Dance is the hidden language of the soul.” -Martha Graham
Dancing is a language that the NCCU student body understands. Every club and organization has its own dance that informs people who they are. Students dance to express themselves and they dance together to create a community. When bodies move together, it creates a a collective, accepting atmosphere in which students do not judge each other and everyone is welcomed.
NCCU has a lot of dance organizations that are popular on campus. Some of these dance groups include the ASFABA Orekelewa Dancers and eClipse. What makes the dance teams unique is their movement, music, and costumes. Each group is rhetorical in how they introduce their audiences to their different styles and that’s why they stand out on campus.
ASFABA stands for the Association of Students for a Better Africa, and Orekelewa means “beautiful,” so the dance group is dedicated to African dancing. In 2018, the coordinators for the group were Idy Utin and Annah Jolly. Idy is from the great country of Nigeria and Annah is from the United States but has family from Senegal. The Orekelewa team dances mostly to Afrobeats music or what is called “African Hip Hop.” Some of their popular moves are the “Shoki,” “Gwara Gwara,” and the “Shaku Shaku.” When the ASFABA Orekelewa Dancers perform, they persuade their audience to get attuned to their African roots and think about where they came from. With the dance team’s costumes, traditional African attire with painted faces and bare feet, they enhance their African heritage.
Another dance group, the eClipse dancers, are a part of the band organization at NCCU called “The Sound Machine.” eClipse is a very popular dance team, and joining is very competitive.
Their dancers are very flexible, can learn an entire dance piece in less than five minutes, and have good stage presence. eClipse performers do band dancing, meaning they dance to only instrumental music that the band plays. The music is usually hip hop that is played on the radio or sometimes old school songs that were played in the 1970s. eClipse often practices everyday except game days and performance days because they have to learn stand dances and the field show dances. When eClipse performs they have to make every movement in unison, whether it’s waving to the audience, walking in the stands, or even when they sit down in the stands. eClipse dances to popular songs to encourage audience members to dance, and they bring more life to the campus community.
Dancing is a prime example of why people love attending NCCU. It brings so much excitement and joy to people. Greek organizations, honor societies, sports teams: everyone has a type of dance that introduces them on campus. At many campus events, DJs love playing music to get students excited. Wild out Wednesday, Block Parties, Chicken Wednesday, and 10:40 Breaks are all events that include dancing because that’s how NCCU students celebrate, connect, and express themselves. Without dancing, there would be no NCCU.
NCCU is built on dignified principles. How people dress affects how they are perceived and what they achieve. As in any culture, student fashion and style are manifestations of human intellectual achievement. Fashion is adaptive based on occasion—imparting etiquette in how certain clothes are worn or defining the principles of fashion trends. If style is a personal choice, dressing for a particular opportunity and embodying the standards of that situation is persuasion. For instance, business attire is usually for “mature settings” and casual attire is for “relaxed settings.” While professional looks are often classified above casual looks, formulating unique looks captures cultural moments, which is evident in student fashion across NCCU’s history.
In a 1939 Eagle school annual, the staff who published the book seemed optimistic about portraying, as they put it, “through the media and of pictures and the written word the part that students play in the life on the campus.” The trend was curled hair and elegant clothing. Most students had a look that seemed unified. A few popular places to shop were Belk-Leggett Company and Royal Tailoring Company of Durham, NC.
Invigorated by fashion, NCCU students are still exposed to the flares of fashion through student organizations, career services, 100 Black Men, and Collegiate Scholars. They all value sophisticated fashion as a avenue for model self-representation.
In a 1970 Eagle school annual, NCCU students and faculty are photographed adorning stylish afros and fashionable tops and bottoms. Given the time, history had fallen into the hands of the Black Power Movement, which was a political and social movement, that believed in advocating for racial pride, self-sufficiency, and equality for all Black people. During the ‘70s, students became more self-expressive. The natural hair texture and bell bottom pants were often a reflection of disco culture and social movements arguing for world peace.
While flipping through the pages of early school annuals, there is sense of pride and unity. We see various participation in business commerce, mathematics club, student congress meetings, and Greek organizations, where most are assembled in fashionable neckties, dress shirts, or sport uniforms.
At the turn of the twenty-first century, the idea of fashion changed immensely; NCCU students had become more diverse in population and were learning how to demonstrate their creativity and collaboration.
In the Campus Echo, a 2017 article “The Measures of Good Style” claims, “a true sense of knowing oneself creates style.” Fashion trends on campus are both forward-thinking and cyclical, as students’ style ranges from contemporary to ‘90s grunge, ‘70s groove, or ‘50s sophisticated. Regardless of their style, NCCU students use fashion to make a statement.
Exercising Truth and Service
Rhetorics of Action
African American rhetoric is rhetoric of community. According to Maulana Karenga, “African culture is rhetoric of communal deliberation, discourse, and action directed towards bringing good into the community and the world.” Dr. Shepard followed a similar philosophy. At NCCU, the motto “Truth and Service” has instilled a level of responsibility and confidence within students. Developed to nurture this commitment, NCCU students were the first in the University of North Carolina System to be required to complete 120 hours of community service in their community. According to NCCU’s website, students completed more than “200,000 hours of service, valued at nearly $3 Million.”
In a 1929 Eagles yearbook, a class poem illustrates the idea of “Truth and Service”:
With our hearts beating high
And our eyes on the good
Our service to man we lend.
The lines mentioned tell about the benefit it does for an individual when lending a helping hand to those in need. The poem exemplifies the motto “Truth and Service.” Over the years, NCCU has fostered this belief on campus and in the surrounding areas of Durham, North Carolina.
One service opportunity is “MLK Day” that honors Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., and encourages students to volunteer by putting together care packages; another opportunity is the blood drive with American Red Cross. Also, the Chancellor leads walks around campus for causes, such as breast cancer, “Bridging the Gap to Eliminate Health Disparities”, and many more. The America Reads program is a service program where NCCU students volunteer at Durham public schools to help students improve their reading levels and lend a helping hand to teachers in their classrooms, offering assistance when needed.
NCCU is adamant about getting students on campus involved in community service. Because of that, students are recognized for their service. Here is picture of a student who received the Student Service Impact Award, for which a student must complete a minimum of 250 service hours. Students who receive this award are recognized in the graduation program and receive a service honor cord to wear on their graduation robes.
The motto “Truth and Service” is introduced from the moment students begin at NCCU, instilling in them that their service matters. Giving back to your community is what helps mold students for the real world.
Visual rhetoric, like all communication, is a system of signs. In the simplest sense, a sign communicates when it is connected to another object, as the changing of the leaves in autumn is connected to a change in temperature or a stop sign is connected to the act of stopping a car while driving. -Sonja Foss
NCCU’s modeling troupes embody some of the most creative and cutting-edge visual rhetorics on campus. Popular at many HBCUs, modeling troupes showcase individual and group fashion through runway shows and choreographed dances. Troupe stylists design and create costumes for members, emphasizing unique styles and forms of artistic expression. When members wear particular styles, they influence fashion trends across campus—placing them at the forefront of evolving NCCU fashion.
The first modeling troupe on the campus was Bon Vivant Fashion Society. Bon Vivant was established in 1983 and brought a very eccentric style to campus. The music and fashion Bon Vivant included in their routines were not what was “in style” during their time, but it embodied their own personal tastes. In 1983, popular style was very classy and clean, but Bon Vivant members wore outfits that were more free, casual, and entertaining. Although Bon Vivant set the tone for modeling by being the first modeling troupe on campus, other troops began to form in the 2000s.
Evalesco fashion and modeling troupe was established at NCCU in 2005. This modeling troupe brought “haute couture” to the campus while being very creative. “Haute couture” is high-end fashion that is mainly hand-crafted and produced by leading fashion designers. Evalesco was described as a peacock because of the poise that their members possessed. Their troupe was based off the quote “Like the feathers of a peacock, fashion FOREVER spreads!” Many of their shows featured futuristic costumes and techno music that helped convey their theme of being the new attraction on campus. Evalesco used its Twitter feed to show what clothes were “in” for the season, posting weekly on the “do’s and don’ts” of fashion. Although many people felt that Evalesco was just giving advice on how to dress, students wore items they felt these fashion connoisseurs would wear. Evalesco is no longer a troupe at NCCU, but modeling did not die.
In 2012, a new fashion and modeling troupe was established named De Haute Allure Fashion and Modeling Troupe, meaning the hottest attraction. DHA values classy style while incorporating trending high fashion, dancing, and modeling. Because the music and culture of campus was changing, DHA gave the campus a “new era”of fashion. While previous modeling troupes on campus had a set style and vibe, DHA was different by incorporating various styles all in one.
In many photos of DHA, you can see the models in “dressy casual” clothing but very rarely streetwear. De haute allure stands for the hottest attraction, which they were when established in 2012. Rhetorically, DHA members use their social media platform and experience in styling to help students on campus become more fashionable. The troupe conducts pop-up shops on campus where students can buy models’ very own clothes. From dresses to skirts and shorts, pants and even rompers/jumpsuits, many students attend these pop-up shops to buy the hottest trending fashions.
Curve Appeal and CPR are the newest troupes on campus. Curve Appeal focuses mainly on the celebration of women who embrace their curves and demonstrates to students no matter what size you are, you can be a model. Challenging society’s standard of beauty, Curve Appeal has brought a new style on campus by resisting stereotypes of Black women in modeling. CPR evolved from and remixed Evelesco’s theme; most of its shows have brought back Evelesco’s 2005 futuristic style.
Overall, each of these troupes has changed NCCU through the visual rhetoric of fashion. Even though each of these troupes has different styles and goals, they all change the way students view fashion. While Bon Vivant gave students a chance to “think outside the box” and not follow social norms, Evalesco gave the campus a chance to be trendy in their own way. De Haute Allure cultivates a more “classy” style, while Curve Appeal encourages students to embrace who they are and their size. Fashion and modeling at NCCU will continue to evolve, just as it always has.
Authors and Credits
Any meaningful journey must have a destination, and the role of the rhetor must be to interpret and expound on the direction that will lead to the appropriate place. -Molefi Asante
Aeriel Battle, Nathaniel Dunn, Tyra Hudson, DeShawna James, Annah Jolly, Devan Nelson, Dr. Julie Nelson, Alamin Roberson, Courtney Thompson, Tatiana Webb, Jacqueline Young-Moore
This project was completed with the support of a Franklin Humanities Institute-NCCU Digital Humanities Fellowship, under the direction of Julie Nelson. Special thanks to Victoria Szabo, Hannah Jacobs, Christina Chia, and the 2017-18 fellows for their support, and to Cathy Nelson for her editorial feedback.
James E. Shepard, image. The Maroon and Gray 1949 ed., p. 4. http://library.digitalnc.org/u?/yearbooks,1639
Barack Obama, image. Indy Week 7 Nov. 2007. https://www.indyweek.com/indyweek/barack-obama-comes-to-durham/Content?oid=1205057
Eagles Gear Up For Election Season, image. NCCU 21 Oct. 2016 http://www.nccu.edu/news/index.cfm?id=19ADA49C-15C5-F8D8-3A9CEF33AB83640B
Martin Luther King Jr. I Have a Dream. YouTube, 15 Dec. 2012 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lX1zIIMQg30
Audio Recording by Devan Nelson, 22 April 2018
Martin Luther King Jr., image. http://newsroom.ucla.edu/stories/ucla-celebrates-50th-anniversary-of-mlks-historic-speech
James E. Shepard. “Our Mutual Tasks.” YouTube, 1 July 2014. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZSfJmuz1h6g
Phylicia Rashad. NCCU’s Rock the Mic. YouTube, 10 Nov. 2017. https://youtu.be/E0pf0yK08zQ
James E. Shepard., and Lenwood G. Davis. Selected writings and speeches of James E. Shepard, 1896-1946: founder of North Carolina Central University. Fairleigh Dickinson Univ. Press, 2013, pp. 126-137
Rhetorics of Activism
Protests at NCCU, other HBCUs over Charlotte Shooting, image. ABC 11 News, 21 Sept. 2016, http://abc11.com/news/protests-at-nccu-other-hbcus-over-charlotte-shooting/1521348/
Woolworth Counter, Shepard Library. Photo taken by Jackie Young-Moore, 7 March 2018
Jena 6 Rally, images. Campus Echo, 26 Sept. 2007
NCCU Black Law Students Association “Hands Up” Rally. YouTube, 25 Aug. 1015, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=utg-Pk5V4pw
Parking At NCCU, YouTube, 20 April 2015, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=34nDA48qfdM
Rhetorics of Food
NCCU Dining Hall, image. The Eagle Yearbook, Digital NC, 1938
“Wouldn’t it be Nice If.” The Eagle Yearbook, Digital NC, 1944, p. 17
W.G. Pearson Dining Hall, image. http://moodynolan.com/portfolio/pearson-cafeteria/
Pearson Commercial. YouTube, 27 Feb. 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Ij_XSxdMXY&feature=youtu.be
Big C Waffles Food Truck. Photo by Julie Nelson, 17 April 2018
Paintbrushes, image. Unsplash, https://unsplash.com/photos/_Yc7OtfFn-0
Painting a picture of the NCCU Department of Art. YouTube, 8 March 2018, https://youtu.be/YAVLFMhLYuo
Achamyeleh Debela. Prayer in Color. 2007, North Carolina Central, Durham
Ex Umbra. Cover and pages, 1966
Souls of Black Folk, installation. Edwards Music Building, NCCU, 2015
Rhetorics of Music
World, image. Pixabay, https://pixabay.com/en/photos/treble%20clef/
Turntables, gif. GIPHY, https://giphy.com/gifs/aerosmith-run-dmc-walk-this-way-e6EYL4isGAGo8
$wank. Hustla Freestyle. YouTube, 24 March 2018, https://youtu.be/qU0u81x4nss
NCCU Music Department, image. http://www.nccu.edu/music/index.cfm
Alma Mater, image. Cape Fear Alumni Chapter. https://nccucapefeardotorg.wordpress.com/the-alma-mater/
Rhetorics of Dance
Sound Machine Team. MOI Photography, 2015
Orekelewa dancers. Photo by E-Board, 2016
NCCU Sound Machine Marching Band Homecoming Performance. YouTube, Nov 17, 2015, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A-LRpBEsE50&feature=youtu.be
NCCU Students Dancing, gif. GIPHY, https://giphy.com/gifs/7SHsq8zCaaQCRk5FwR
Rhetoric in Fashion
Yearbook head shots, 1970 Eagle Yearbook. Photo by Nathaniel Dunn, 2018
Snapshots. NCC Eagle Yearbook, Digital NC, 1940, p. 13
Snapshots. NCC Eagle Yearbook, Digital NC, 1940, p. 14
Student portraits. Photos by Nathaniel Dunn, 2017-2018
Rhetorics of Action
Hands, image. Unsplash, https://unsplash.com/photos/zFnk_bTLApo
Class Poem. NCC Eagle Yearbook, Digital NC, 1929, p. 29
MLK Day, YouTube, 28 Jan. 2005,https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Scfy_PV869M
Student Service Impact Award Winner, image. http://www.nccu.edu/news/index.cfm?ID=30FFFF5B-0962-1B4A-
Rhetorics of Modeling
DHA, image. Photos With Des, 2017
Bon Vivant Fashion Show. Campus Echo, 27 April 2000, http://web.nccu.edu/campus/echo/archive8-9900/ae-vivant.html
Bon Vivant Fashion Show. Campus Echo, 14 Nov. 2002, http://web.nccu.edu/campus/echo/archive5-0203/ae-homecoming.html
Bon Vivant Fashion Show. Campus Echo, 8 Nov. 8 2001, http://web.nccu.edu/campus/echo/archive3-0102/ae-bonvivant.html
Evalesco posts, Twitter and Instagram, 2018
DHA posts, Twitter and Instagram, 2018